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Nearly 8. For example, Natural Resources Hot sexy italian girls has estimated that less than 0. Each coal mine has a limited life span due to the finite nature of the resource being extracted. Eventually the resource is exhausted, or the point is reached at which it is no longer profitable to extract for any number of reasons, such as increasing mine depth, increasing strip ratios, changing regulations, or market pressures.

When extractive activities cease, restoration processes must be completed, although they normally begin far sooner. In fact, reclamation processes typically begin while active mining is still occurring in another area of a mine. Thus, mining and restoration can be completed continuously and progressively throughout the life of a mine. Today in many parts of the world, reclamation and restoration plans must be prepared prior to Strip mine reclamation trees. An improved understanding of the potential impacts of industrial activities, societal attitudes toward mining, increasingly stringent regulatory regimes, and dynamic market conditions now typically require companies to state clearly how their operating area will be restored before mining can begin.

There are various approaches to reclamation, and collaborative efforts Strip mine reclamation trees industry and government can help to improve mine management and reclamation processes. Strip mine reclamation trees, best practices and select case studies are worth exploring to highlight examples of successful mine closure and remediation. A former opencast coal mine in Montana, U.

Reclamation can be roughly defined as the replacement of soil materials—often Strip mine reclamation trees approximate original contour—and revegetation of mined areas or areas adjacent to mines that have been affected by mining activities. Reclamation activities sometimes can also employ passive means of ecosystem restoration—wherein a less intensive management approach Strip mine reclamation trees taken and, for example, flora and fauna are allowed to self-colonize after soil replacement Strip mine reclamation trees stabilization are completed.

Technical reclamation activities often aim to proactively manage a mined area for specific natural or recreational value, or other human uses, which can include infrastructure needs such as airports, schools, or shopping centers. Reclamation activities can also target agricultural or silvicultural i. Both underground and opencast mines require reclamation, but the approaches are different. Reclamation activities for underground mines will typically require less aboveground activity, but can necessitate extensive management to avoid drainage and flooding issues after mine closure.

This management can involve techniques such as filling of excavated areas with mine spoil or fly ash and diverting or controlling the flow of groundwater to keep it from entering existing mine structures. Doing so avoids the risk of Strip mine reclamation trees water becoming contaminated by dissolved metals and other substances and potentially being discharged into rivers and streams.

Notably, higher levels of calcite or carbonates in the rock, however, Strip mine reclamation trees neutralize acidic mine water, allowing metals to stay immobile.

Reclamation of opencast mines typically involves replacement of overburden that was removed or repositioned to access buried coal layers. Strip mine reclamation trees excavated areas are built up, re-landscaping or recontouring is completed along with drainage control measures.

Recontouring will be guided by mine plan objectives i. Strip mine reclamation trees other human uses are planned for, the land will often be leveled or shaped in a manner that improves access or aids in future infrastructure development.

The time frame extending from exploration to post-reclamation and closure requires decades see Figure 1. In many cases, reclamation processes—which can include the mine closure and decommissioning stage, as well as the post-closure stage—can require as long as, or even longer than, the Strip mine reclamation trees previous stages of exploration, site construction, and mining. Even with mining plans in place, mining can substantially affect local or regional environments.

Proper reclamation of mine sites, however, can avoid many risks, including unstable spoil piles, acid drainage and water quality issues, and potential cave-ins. Best practice reclamation activities are designed to limit or avoid these impacts to the greatest degree possible.

Although fully listing the legislative, regulatory, or best practices standards governing global mine reclamation is outside the scope of this article, a few prominent examples are worth highlighting. For example, general requirements for the approval of mining permits could resemble the conservation practice standards published by the Natural Strip mine reclamation trees Conservation Service NRCSU. NRCS describes a threefold purpose for land reclamation:.

Companies are also urged to rehabilitate progressively through the full life cycle of the Strip mine reclamation trees and, where possible, to manage and rehabilitate historical disturbances. Employing Strip mine reclamation trees practices during contemporary mine reclamation helps to avoid the challenges associated with mines that were not properly reclaimed in the past. The varied nature of reporting measures and regulatory regimes governing mine management worldwide are compounded by the fact that many private or unregulated Strip mine reclamation trees have been created, especially in developing nations where Strip mine reclamation trees oversight may not yet be as thorough.

Thus, it is difficult—if not impossible—to get a full count of the number of abandoned coal mines worldwide. The legacy of abandoned mines, however, is being addressed in many areas.

Demonstrating a transparent working relationship with conservation groups and other stakeholders can also help regulatory agencies when reviewing permit applications. If these agencies observe Strip mine reclamation trees support for mine plans and objectives and are convinced the area will be properly reclaimed and managed in the post-mining stages, permit approvals can likely be obtained much more easily.

One example of a collaborative effort is the U. Efforts like the MLSI are a positive Sri lanka nude boy porn proactive approach to reduce confusion and litigation, increase stakeholder involvement and buy-in, improve transparency, and ensure the highest standard of reclamation is carried out.

Even with proactive management efforts like the MLSI, reclamation can be an expensive endeavor. As the mine will not continue producing saleable material, no additional income will be brought in after operations cease. Therefore, most regulatory agencies require some form of a financial safety net, or bonding, to ensure sufficient funds are available for reclamation even if a bankruptcy occurs. In this manner, company insolvency or an abandoned mine will not impose mine closure and reclamation costs on taxpayers.

While having adequate funds Strip mine reclamation trees reclamation is clearly important, public policy must recognize that environmental protection, reclamation in this case, must be balanced with financial realities to avoid stifling economic activity and to allow mining companies to operate profitably.

The International Council on Mining and Metals ICMM has reported that expectations from an increasingly risk-averse public and government have been forcing assurance costs Strip mine reclamation trees. In fact, increasingly conservative expectations of certainty relating to environmental protection could place such strict financial and administrative pressures on mining companies that mining projects could be cancelled as uneconomic. When this photo was taken inthe Phoenix 2 mine had been backfilled.

Final grading and seeding had yet to be completed on the top lift. Rock side drains were constructed at the perimeter to prevent erosion. Numerous mines around the world are demonstrating successful reclamation projects, several of which are profiled in other articles in this issue of Cornerstone. The Phoenix 2 mine was the recipient of the U. ARRI is a working group comprised of citizen representatives, industry, academia, and government, and was formed to encourage planting of productive trees on reclaimed coal mine lands and abandoned mine lands.

The FRA is made up of five steps:. Phoenix 2 mine is a acre ha operation, originally permitted in January under the approximate original contour AOC -plus backfill guidelines. Under these guidelines, final backfill elevations were established to mimic the natural terrain of West Virginia, avoid soil compaction, and enhance post-mine land use.

As year six approachesthe Phoenix 2 mine area is returning to a productive, natural state. Finite resources entail a Strip mine reclamation trees mining life cycle. Key objectives in reclamation activities are to reduce potential damage and prevent negative impacts to the natural environment in and near mined areas, to restore the viability and growing potential of soils to their pre-mining level, and to maintain or improve landscape visual and functional quality.

Reviewing effective examples of mine reclamation from around the globe, such as those profiled in this issue, allows the extractive industry to develop a suite of best practices for successfully reclaiming mined areas. These properly reclaimed mines can provide essential lessons on technology, policy, and collaboration and serve as the gold standard for mine reclamation efforts. The author can be reached at jhayes americancoalcouncil. Click here to opt-in or opt-out.

You must be logged in to post a comment. Share this article. A mine project life cycle 7. Phoenix 2 mine demonstrating new growth approaching year five

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